Bloom’s Taxonomy & ‘HOTS’

blooms-taxonomy

Higherorder thinking, known as higher order thinking skills (HOTS), is a concept of education reform based on learning taxonomies (such as Bloom’s Taxonomy). The idea is that some types of learning require more cognitive processing than others, but also have more generalized benefits. – Wikipedia

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom with collaborators Max Englehart, Edward Furst, Walter Hill, and David Krathwohl published a framework for categorizing educational goals: Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. Familiarly known as Bloom’s Taxonomy, this framework has been applied by generations of K-12 teachers and college instructors in their teaching.

The framework elaborated by Bloom and his collaborators consisted of six major categories: Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation. The categories after Knowledge were presented as “skills and abilities,” with the understanding that knowledge was the necessary precondition for putting these skills and abilities into practice.

While each category contained subcategories, all lying along a continuum from simple to complex and concrete to abstract, the taxonomy is popularly remembered according to the six main categories.

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Author: Justin Detmers

Instructor & PhD Candidate in Teacher Education Michigan State University detmersj@msu.edu

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